THE TRUFFLE

Come and meet the truffle

WHAT IS THE TRUFFLE?

Il tartufo è un fungo ipogeo, che vive cioè sottoterra, è simbionte, ovvero che si nutre delle sostanze che trova sulle radici di alcune specie di alberi cui restituisce altre sostanze a loro necessarie.
Vivendi in simbiosi con gli alberi, le specie più preziose per il tartufo sono, il noce, il pioppo, il nocciolo, il tiglio, il castagno, il pino, le querce (cerri, roveri, roverelle, farnie, querce spinose, lecci).
Ogni tipo di pianta conferisce al tartufo una caratteristica diversa; come le querce che hanno nelle loro vicinanze i tartufi migliori.

Truffles are a sort of mushroom that lives below ground. They form a symbiotic relationship with their environment and feed on the substances they find on the roots of some species of trees to which they also restore vital substances. Since they live in symbiosis with trees, the most important species for truffles are walnut, poplar, hazel, linden, chestnut, pine, oak (turkey oak, durmast oak, little oak, English oak, Adriatic oak, and Holm oak). Each type of tree gives the truffle a different characteristic; such as the oak, which is always closest to the best truffles. The body of the truffle is spherical in shape, varying in size from a hazelnut to a melon, with a more or less even surface The outer part of the truffle (peridium), which is more simply known as the peel or skin can be white, yellow, dark grey or black and smooth or warty according to the different species The peridium protects the truffle against bacteria and mould. The main characteristic of the truffle is its smell, which can be perceived even from a distance. Different species of truffle have different smells, but in each case, the aroma is difficult to describe because it cannot be compared to that of any other edible fruit or mushroom This adds to the truffle’s rarity and uniqueness. Inside the fruit is the flesh or gleba, which is differently coloured according to the species, the host tree, and to the minerals in the soil. For example, the gleba of the white truffle (Tuber Magnatum Pico) is almost white if the fruit lives with the willow or poplar, while it is dark hazelnut in colour if it lives close to an oak, and it also has red marks if it lives in symbiosis with the linden.

A questa gamma di colori, si contrappone la tonalità unica del tartufo nero pregiato (Tuber Melanosporum Vitt.) la cui gleba, nella fase di piena maturazione assume il colore nero-violaceo.
Le caratteristiche principali per distinguere le varie specie sono:

  • The soil, the plants with which the truffle has a symbiotic relationship, and the area or countries in which the truffles grow.
  • However, the main difference is that between the black and white truffle.
  • The black winter truffle is found in France (Perigord, Vaucluse) and in Norcia, Umbria.
  • That is why the truffle is known as the Norcia or Perigord black truffle
  • The best truffle of all is the white truffle, followed by the black winter truffle.
  • The best white truffle is found in Alba, Piedmont or in the Monferrato region and in the Marches region in Acqualagna.

Calendario raccolta Tartufo Regione Piemonte (click here)

The seasons for the sale of truffles are:

White truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) dal 15 Settembre al 31 Gennaio.

Black winter truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad) from1st December to15th March.

Tartufo Tuber brumale var. moschatum De Ferry dal 15 Dicembre al 15 Marzo.

Tartufo nero estivo o “Scorzone” (Tuber aestivum Vittad) dal 15 Giugno al 30 Agosto.

Tartufo nero o “Scorzone” (Tuber uncinatum Chatin) dal 1 Ottobre al 31 Dicembre.

Tartufo Tuber brumale Vittad dal 15 Dicembre al 15 Marzo.

Tartufo bianchetto o “Marzuolo”

(Tuber albidum Pico o Tuber  borchii Vittad)  dal 15 Gennaio al 30 Aprile.

Tartufo Nero liscio (Tuber macrosporum Vittad) dal 1 Ottobre al 31 Dicembre.

Tartufo Nero ordinario o di Bagnoli (Tuber mesentericum Vittad) dal 1 Ottobre al 31 Gennaio.

La raccolta è vietata per tutte le specie di tartufo dal 31 agosto al 14 settembre.

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